History of settlement

The evidence of these regions' inhabitedness date back to ancient times, as proved by the remains originating from the Neolithic period. The Neolithic settlement at Suplacu de Barcău is the first and the only exhaustively researched one in Bihor county, making possible the thorough investigation into the structure and evolution of a well individualized cultural group within the framework of contemporary discoveries, which was named the Suplacu de Barcău group.
The neolithic settlement was brought to the attention of the "Ţării Crişurilor" Museum by the local Imre Sal ánki. He donated the archeological material gathered from the banks of the Barcău river to the museum's collection. Excavations started at the "Corău I" point in 1973. Dwelling places, ceramic objects and tools made of polished stone were found then. The richness of the materials discovered during the excavations, the specific features of moulding and decorating the ceramics, the true industry of polished stone tools led to the definition of the Suplac cultural group as a separate one within the cultural complex characterized by painted and incised ceramics gravitating around the Western Carpathians, which is related and contemporary to the Iclod group discovered in the valley of the Someş river.
By synthesizing the scientific data resulting from the performed research the following conclusions can be drawn:
- four types of dwelling places were identified, denoting the knowledge of techniques for building strong, durable dwelling places, as well as a good knowledge of the region's geographical conditions.
- the settlement at Suplacu de Barcău is the first one specialized in the manufacturing of polished stone tools intended for the community's own use, as well as for barter with neighboring settlements.
- the stone polishing workshop attests to processing techniques and methods unknown until then. The craft required extensive knowledge regarding the use of stone for each tool type. The typology of these tools remains valid for the systematization of similar pieces found at other Neolithic settlements.
- the predominant ceramic type is the painted one, and it clearly differs from the ceramics peculiar to the three neighboring cultural types, although it originates and develops from those. The raw material used for painting was a bituminous black paste.
- the settlements of the Suplacu de Barcău cultural group certified for the first time the existence of incineration as a burial ritual, unknown as a method until then in this horizon.
Parish Seat
The settlement of Suplacu de Barcău has always been the seat of the parish.
The first documented mentioning of the settlement of Suplacu de Barc ău is to be found in the tithe accounts of the Roman Catholic bishopric of Oradea for the years 1291-1294, under the name of „villa Zeplac". The toponym remains a mystery. According to some explanations the name of the settlement can be linked to the presumed name of a Dacian prince, as the settlement is situated close to the Dacian fortress of Marca-Suplac.
The present-day Hungarian name of the settlement of Suplacu de Barc ău explains the origin of the toponym: the settlement is linked to the Barcău river, as it is geographically situated in a „nice place" ( Széplak = nice place in Hungarian) along the Barc ău.
It lies in the north-eastern part of Bihor county, in the valley of the Barc ău river, 3 km downstream of its epigenetic gorge at Marca.
The north-eastern and eastern margins of the settlement touch those of the parish of Marca, Sălaj county, while its western and south-western borders touch those of the villages of Balc, Dolea, Foglaş and Valea Cerului.
The actual centre of the settlement is situated on the terraces to the left of the Barc ău.